Metal-free crowns and metal-free ceramics represent the type of highly aesthetic restorations completely made of ceramics. They can imitate natural characteristics of teeth and leak the light as a natural tooth. Metal-free ceramic crowns ideally fit into a dental canal, espacially in cases where not all teeth are restored, but only some of them and they can not be distinguished. They are made of bio-compatible materials, which means they do not cause any reactions of surrounding tissue, but enable shaping of gingiva just like around natural teeth. They represent a combination of high quality and durability of restorations.
Mechanical characteristics of metal-free ceramics are similar to metal-free crowns, but benefits are far better.
Metal-ceramic crowns have a metal alloy inside, to which ceramic is applied outside for aesthetic reasons. Thus, there is possibility of appearance of grey edge in the shape of crescent on metal-ceramic crowns at the turn of the tooth, when in time gums begin to withdraw. This can not happen on metal-free ceramic crowns because the interior itself of the crown is in tooth colour, so by withdrawal of gums the aesthetic effect will not be affected.
Removal of tooth structure (dental grinding) is far smaller in case of making of metal-free crowns. For example, for making of metal-free crowns it is necessary to remove 1,5-2,0 mm, while for making of metal-free ceramic crown it is necassary to remove from 0,3-1,0 mm of dental structure.
In most cases, metal-free crowns are made of zirconium or lithium disilicate ceramics.Therefore, we have a crown made of materials similar to glass, it is easy and transparent, and resistant as much as a natural tooth.
Crowns made of zirconium represent very popular type of metal-free restorations. Zirconium has exceptional mechanical features. It is white and one of the hardest materials. First it was used in space technology, and after long-term research it was applied in some medical branches, for example in orthopedics in production of arteficial hips. Crowns made of zirconium have excellent aesthetic and mechanical features, and becoame widely used due to possibility of production of metal-free bridges of large range. Though this material made a turnover in technology of crown production, aesthetic features of lithium-disilicate ceramics are still inviolable.
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